The collapse of central authority, both in Syria and Iraq, coupled with the rise of an increasing number of non-state actors, has led to much speculation about the future of the Levant and the end of at least some of the states formed after the First World War. The first in a long series of agreements that determined the post-Ottoman Levant was struck in 1916 by a British diplomat and a French diplomat, Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot. The “end of Sykes-Picot” has become the acronym for speculation about a possible transformation of the countries of the Levant. In April 1920, the San Remo conference distributed Class A mandates on Syria to France and Iraq and Palestine to Britain. The same conference ratified an oil agreement reached at a London conference on 12 February, based on a slightly different version of the Long Berenger agreement, previously signed on 21 December in London. The Anglo-French declaration was read in the protocol, and Pichon commented that it showed the selfless position of the two governments towards the Arabs and Lloyd George that it was “more important than all the old agreements”. [91] Pichon mentioned an agreement proposed on 15 February on the basis of the private agreement between Clemenceau and Lloyd George last December. [91] (According to Lieshout, Clemenceau presented Lloyd George, just before Faisal met at the conference of 6, a proposal that seems to cover the same subject; Lieshout, which issued on British materials related to the 6, while the date is not specified in the minutes. [92] The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Agreement would take place during the First World War and would conclude warning agreements during the First World War. The first negotiations that led to the agreement took place between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, during which British and French diplomats Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot signed an agreed memorandum. [3] The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. [4] Until the centenary of Sykes-Picot in 2016, the media[109] and science[110] generated strong interest in the long-term effects of the agreement. The agreement is often cited as “artificial” borders in the Middle East, “without regard to ethnic or sectarian characteristics, which has led to endless conflicts.” [111] The question of the extent to which Sykes-Picot has really marked the borders of the modern Middle East is controversial.

[112] [113] The French elected Picot as French High Commissioner for the soon-to-be occupied territory of Syria and Palestine. The British appointed Sykes political chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. On April 3, 1917, Sykes met Lloyd George, Curzon and Hankey to receive his instructions on the matter, namely to keep the French on their side as they pushed towards a British Palestine.