The WIPO Copyright Contract (WCT) is a special agreement under the Berne Convention, which deals with the protection of works and the rights of their authors in the digital environment. Each party (even if not bound by the Berne Convention) must comply with the material provisions of the 1971 (Paris) law of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886). In addition, the WCT mentions two themes to be copyrighted: (i) computer programs, regardless of the nature or form of their expression; and (ii) compilations of data or other documents (“databases”) in any form, which are spiritual creations because of the choice or disposition of their content. (If a database does not constitute such an organization, it does not fit within the scope of this treaty.) In the earlier phase of the negotiations, the WCT was regarded as a protocol to the Berne Convention, which had been an update of the agreement since the 1971 Stockholm Conference.  However, as any amendment to the Berne Convention required the unanimous agreement of all parties, the WCT was conceived as an additional contract complementing the Berne Agreement.  The collapse of negotiations on the extension of the Bern Agreement in the 1980s led to a transfer of the forum to the GATT, which led to the ON-TRIPS agreement.   Thus, the nature of a World Intellectual Property Organization copyright treaty has become much narrower, as it was limited to addressing the challenges posed by digital technologies. The WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) is a special agreement that has been adopted by the consensus of more than 100 European Union (EU) member states. WCT, adopted in Geneva (Switzerland) on 20 December 1996, complements the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Berne Convention) and the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Phonogram Producers and Broadcasters (Rome Convention). At that time, the Berne and Rome conventions had not been amended for 25 years. WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT)Geneva (1996)Table of materials>TABLE>PREAMBLETHE CONTRACTING PARTIES,DESINING, develop and maintain the protection of authors` rights over their literary and artistic works as effectively and uniformly as possible,RECONNAISSANT the need to introduce new international rules and clarify the interpretation of certain existing rules in order to find appropriate solutions to new economic developments , social, cultural and technologicalLY RECOGNIZE the profound impact of the development and convergence of information and communication technologies on the creation and use of literary and artistic works, underscoring the paramount importance of copyright protection as an incentive for literary and artistic creation,RECONNAISSANT the need to maintain a balance between the rights of creators and the increased public interest , in particular education, research and access to information, as the Berne Convention points out, HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:Article 1Rearation to the Berne Convention1.